The Nobel Prize

Overview

Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the Nobel Prize in his will in 1895. For over a century the prize has stood for extraordinary accomplishment in a variety of fields throughout the world. Join Active Minds as we trace the history of the Nobel Prize, highlighting notable laureates, notable omissions, and a controversy here and there. We will also take a look at recent and possible future winners and the political impact the prize can have in the world.

Key Lecture Points

  • Alfred Nobel (1833-96) was a scientist and industrialist who invented dynamite in 1867. A shrewd businessman, he amassed a fortune by building an empire of some 90 factories and laboratories in more than 20 countries—one of the first multinationals. Throughout his life, Nobel maintained an interest in science as well as literature and languages. He was fluent in 5 languages by the time he was 17.
  • In his will, Nobel left most of his fortune to endow the Nobel Prizes to recognize individuals who have benefited humanity by scientific advances, literary contributions and promotion of peace. His will calls upon (and endows) committees from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to award the Prizes in Physics and Chemistry. (The prize in Economics, also chosen by the Academy, was established in 1969, by way of a separate endowment from Sweden’s Central Bank.) The Swedish Academy is responsible for the Literature Prize. The Medicine or Physiology Prize is selected by the Karolinska Institute, a medical university in Stockholm. The Peace Prize is the responsibility of the Storting, the Norwegian Parliament. All Prizes are presented to the new laureates on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death. The first awards were given in 1901.
  • The Nobel Prizes started in controversy and continue to cause controversy. Although the general public may not be able to judge the worthiness of a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, many have an opinion regarding the Prize for Literature or Peace. Examples of awards that sparked criticism are the 1973 Peace Prize given to Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, and the 1997 Literature Prize given to Dario Fo rather than to more established nominees that year such as Salman Rushdie and Arthur Miller.

Exploration Questions

  • What were the influences in Alfred Nobel’s life that led him to create the Nobel Prize?
  • In what ways has the Nobel Prize been a positive influence?

Reflective Questions

  • With all the tumultuous events in the last year, who do you think should receive the next Peace Prize?
  • Whom would you pick for the literature prize?

More to Explore

Books For Further Reading

  • Leroy, Francis. A Century of Nobel Prizes Recipients: Chemistry, Physics, and Medicine. CRC Press, 2003. 380 pages. Celebrating a century of revolutionary contributions to our understanding of life, the world, and the universe, this encyclopedic desk reference traces the discoveries that earned nearly 500 distinguished scientists Nobel honors in the areas of chemistry, physics, and medicine.
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  • Feldman, Burton. The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy and Prestige. Arcade Publishing, 2011. 512 pages. Feldman relates the lively history of the most prestigious merit awards in consistently engaging fashion, touring its century-long existence forward from the will of dynamite mogul Alfred Nobel.
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